Diffrences between:

Diffrences between:

·         which or what

·         when or if

·         to, too or two

·         see, visit, attend or go to

·         make or do

·         look, see or watch

·         life, live or lives

·         it's or its

·         The words "eat" and "food"

·         disability, handicap, impairment

·         bring or take

·         borrow or lend

·         big, great, high, large or tall

·         The words "become", "get", "go" and "turn"

·         because, as, since or for

·         's - is or has

And finally

·         British - American English - Spelling Rules

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which or what

Word

Explanation

Example

which

You have a limited choice of things.

Which lemonade do you like - green or pink?

what

You have an unlimited choice of things.

What lemonade do you like?

With nouns that refer to people, sometimes which is used - even if there is an unlimited choice.

 

when or if

Word

Explanation

Example

when

you are sure that something will happen

When I'm in Paris, I'll visit you.
(It
sure, that I'm going to Paris.)

if

you are not sure that something will happen

If I'm in Paris, I'll visit you.
(It
not sure, that I'm going to Paris.)

ATTENTION!
You can both use when and if when you talk about things that happen repeatedly (in generalizations).

If you freeze water, it expands.
When you freeze water, it expands.

 

 

to, too or two

Word

Explanation

Example

to

preposition


before an infinitive

He walks to school.
They fly
to Budapest.

I don't know what
to do.

too

also, as well

sth. is more than necessary

He sings and plays the drums too.

This T-shirt is
too large.

two

number

We arrived in Rome two hours ago.

 

see, visit, attend or go to

englisch

deutsch

Beispiel

see

to go and see sb./sth.

Come and see us tomorrow.

visit

to go and see sb./sth. (sounds more official)

Lots of tourists visit the Tower every day.

attend

to go regularly to a place

I attend a university.

go to

to go somewhere

I go to university.
We
go to a party every Friday.

 

 

make or do

Exercise 1: make or do

Exercise 2: make or do

 

Word

Explanation

Example

make

to create sth. (you often use your hands)

We make birdhouses every winter.
The pupils
make a lot of noise in the break.
She
makes me happy.

do

an action you do not mention by name;
mostly mental work;
mostly referred to the topic "work"

They do their homework in the afternoon.
I often
do the shopping in the evenings.

There are no clear rules whether to use "do" or "make": Have a look in a good dictionary, like to OALD, or use make it is more likely to be right.

 

look, see or watch

Exercise: look, see or watch

 

Word

Explanation

Example

look

to pay attention, to try to see what is there;
look up (e.g. dictionary)

Look at the board, please.
You can
look up the words in the dictionary.

see

visual impression come to our eyes;
understand

Can you see the the blue car over there?
I
see what you mean.

watch

like to look, but these things can change

He watches TV in the evenings.

life, live or lives

Exercise 1: life, live or lives

Exercise 2: life, live, lives or lived

 

Word

Explanation

Example

live [lɪv]
he lives [lɪvz]

to live (verb)

I live in France.
Peter
lives in Poland.

life [laɪf]
lives
[laɪvz]

state of living
plural of life

I read a book about the life of Mark Twain.
Many people lost their
lives in the war.

live [laɪv]

not recorded;
not dead

We watched the live coverage of the Formula I.
We really saw a
live rattlesnake.


it's or its

Word

Explanation

Example

it's

Short/contracted form of it is or
it has

It's a boy. (it is)

It's been raining for five hours now. (it has)

its

Possessive pronouns never have apostrophes.

England is famous for its castles.

 

The word "eat"

The words "eat" and "food" are not always used correctly. We've listed some phrases which are wrong and some which are correct. Always use a good dictionary if you're not sure.

correct phrase

common error

My mother is cooking the meal.

My mother is cooking the eat.

The food tastes wonderful.

The eat tastes wonderful.

I like Mexican meals.

I like Mexican eat.


Here are some correct phrases:

correct phrase

I don't eat fish.

I go to eat at my grandmother's.

Come and eat!

disability, handicap, impairment

Word

Explanation

Example

disability

used to refer to an on-the-job injury
One is "On disability" when they are being paid by their employer while recovering from the injury.

When you are disabled it can be even more difficult to find a job, especially if you have limitation because of your disability.
disability benefit = Erwerbsunfähigkeitsrente

handicap

a specific ailment, injury, or infirmity that a person suffers from which limits their abiltity to function in a normal capacity
This is the official term used when the Department of Motor Vehicles issues a special permit to allow the driver to park their car in a designated area, for example.

Handicap parking spaces are restricted to authorized verhicles 24 hours daily.

impairment

the broadest term - it can mean that there is a disability or handicap, OR it can mean that the person has had too much too drink

The man was driving a car while impaired by alcohol.

All three terms are pretty much interchangeable in many instances but most of the time each is used in a certain way.

 

bring or take

Exercise: bring or take

 

Word

Explanation

Example

bring

to come to a place

Can you bring me the Coke, please?

take

to carry or move sth. from one place to another

Can you take the book to the library?

 

borrow or lend

Exercise: borrow or lend

 

Word

Explanation

Example

borrow

to take and use sth. that belongs to sb. else

I'd like to borrow your umbrella.

lend

to give sth. to sb. that belongs to you

I can lend you my umbrella.

big, great, high, large or tall

Exercise: big, great, high, large or tall

 

Word

Explanation

Example

big

large in size, degree or amount

a big stone

great

much bigger than average

a great success
a
great time

high

measurement from the bottom to the top; greater than normal

a high mountain
a
high level

large

big in size and quantity

a large country
a
large number of people

tall

greater height than average

a tall man

Note: We use high or tall when we talk about buildings.

 

 

The words "become", "get", "go" and "turn"

The words "become", "get", "go" and "turn" are not always used correctly. We've listed some phrases which are wrong and some which are correct. Always use a good dictionary if you're not sure.

correct phrase

common error

I got a present from him.

I became a present from him.

When do I get my steak?

When do I become my steak?

He got a shock when he saw his car.

He became a shock when he saw his car.

The tea does him good.

The tea becomes him good.

I want to become a teacher.

I will a teacher.

He became famous.

He would famous

We became friends.

We were friends.

It became clear that she wanted to leave.

It would clear that she wanted to leave.

It's getting dark.

It will dark.

He turned red.

He was red.

She went white when she saw the accident.

She was white when she saw the accident.


The word "get" is very common in spoken English, "become" is more formal.
German native speaker sometimes use "become" in an incorrect way.

 

because, as, since or for

Word

Explanation

Example

because

The reason is very important in the sentence, so because comes in the sencond clause of the sentence.

I read this book because I like it.

as

The reason is already known.

As we read, we learn.

since

The reason is already known.
(more formal than
as)

Since we were in the computer lab, our English has improved.

for

The reason is given at the end of the sentence.

We went to a small restaurant - for we were hungry.

 

 

's - is or has

Exercise: is or has


In spoken English the words is and has are sometimes contracted to 's.

Have a look at the following examples:
1) He's listening to music. -> He is listening to music.
2) He's listened to music. -> He has listened to music.

In sentence 1) the 's is followed by listening. This verb has the ending -ing. It is Present Progressive (is + infinitive + -ing).

In sentence 2) the 's is followed by listened. This verb has the ending -ed. It is Present Perfect (regular: has + infinitive + -ed or
irregular: has + 3rd column of the irregular verbs).

The verb following the 's tells you whether it's is or has.

 

 

British - American English - Spelling Rules

There are some spelling differences in American English. In the 1800's, the US Congress actually called for several changes to make words more phonetic. Look at the following examples:

 

British English

American English

Example (British - American)

1

words ending in -re

change to -er

centre - center
metre - meter

2

words ending in -our

change to -or

colour - color

3

words ending in -ogue

change to -og

catalogue - catalog

4

words ending in -ise/ize

ending only in -ize

realise/realize - realize

5

final -l doubled after short vowel

- l not always doubled after a short vowel

travelled - traveled
modelling - modeling

6

words ending in -ence

change to -ense

defence - defense
lic
ence - license

 

  
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